Contract Cheating – A Decade (Plus One) Of Contract Cheating

10 In 10 Contract Cheating Series – Year 11 Review

In 2016, I quietly published a series of blog posts looking back at 10 years of contract cheating. June 2016 marked the 10th anniversary of my research referring to contract cheating. This was first being published in June 2006 (although the data referred to in that study predates this, as it was collected from 2004 onwards).

The A Decade of Contract Cheating series looked back at previous developments, considered future work in the contract cheating and debuted some new elements of research prior to formal publication.

I didn’t heavily promote A Decade of Contract Cheating when the posts were originally published, although I’ve had some good feedback relating to the series. That means that many of the posts have become buried inside the blog.

June 2017 marks 11 years of contract cheating. This brings with it the perfect time to review the A Decade of Contract Cheating series and to look at how the field is continuing to progress. I’ve summarised the posts, with links to the original discussions, in the table below.

Post Number Post Title Post Details
Part 01 Examining The Changes That Have Been Made To The Marketplace For Bespoke Essays Slides This was the first talk I delivered that really drilled down into the marketing of essay mills and contract cheating services. This marketing is one of the main reasons that the essay industry has been able to become so big. I’ve since developed these ideas much further through other presentations.
Part 02 Examining The Changes That Have Been Made To The Marketplace For Bespoke Essays Video As part of the 10 in 10 series, I recorded a separate (34 minute) version of what I billed as my anniversary presentation. Conference presentations are always tight on time, so this video version allowed me to go into more detail about the examples. Marketing is such a fast moving field that there are new developments to add to how the essay industry works even from one year ago.
Part 03 The Demand For Essay Writing Jobs A little-spoken about challenge within contract cheating has been the set of academic writers who provide essays and assignments for students. This post identifies five types of ghostwriters along with examples and details of the market that buys and sells essay writing service accounts as these are in great demand. The post doesn’t discuss the fake academic writers who are also out there, collecting money from unsuspecting students.
Part 04 Eliminating The Successor To Plagiarism – Identifying The Usage Of Contract Cheating Sites 10 Years On Slides I developed this talk as an Internet exclusive, taking the set of slides from my first conference presentation on contract cheating and annotating them with how the field had developed in the past 10 years. The slides empathise the change in marketing techniques and how the success of similarity detection software has moved the essay industry away from selling the same essay multiple times. They also show the still valid finding, that students don’t just buy a single assignment, but students continue to habitually buy assignments throughout their course.
Part 05 Eliminating The Successor To Plagiarism – Identifying The Usage Of Contract Cheating Sites 10 Years On Video The video version of the 10 Years On talk (another Internet exclusive) runs to 27 minutes, allowing me to drill down much more into the differences between the essay writing industry in 2006 and 2016. This is a useful introduction video to anyone looking to see how the contract cheating field has developed.
Part 06 The Growth Of Essay Outsourcing To Fiverr.com As part of my publications, I’ve broken the news of different sites being used to facilitate contract cheating on many occasions. Fiverr.com is part of the gig economy for cheating, offering very low cost outsourcing opportunities for students thinking outside the box of the major essay mills. Students are using this an agency style website and cutting out the other links in the cheating chain to connect together directly with writers. The site provides over 800 advertised gigs for essay writing services. In a separate investigation of mine where I priced up one of my own assignments, a literature review, most writers asked for $20 USD to complete this 2000 word literature review (just 1c per word).
Part 07 What Shape Is The Bespoke Essay Industry In Today? How big is the essay industry is one of those difficult questions to answer. I tend to play safe when asked that question, pointing instead to the massive growth of essay site marketing and visibility as being suggestive on many more sites. There have also been suggestions that, although the number of orders has grown, the amount paid per assignment has dropped, so the financial growth of the industry has also slowed. Equating known facts about the industry and search traffic, I estimate an essay industry worth £50 million per year. This is below the figures suggested by the essay mills themselves. However, when smaller players such as individual writers and private tutors are included, as well as the market for work in languages other than English, the real figure could be much higher.
Part 08 The Impact Of Twitter On The Essay Industry I was an early adopter of social media use within teaching in the UK. In the world of 2017, it would be difficult to imagine a world where students weren’t digitally led and engaged through social media. The contract cheating industry also knows this, with advertising sent to students that can be both context aware and geotargeted. This post focuses on Twitter, but as my essay marketing work has shown, similar functionality is available through Facebook, LinkedIn, Snapchat and other sites. As well as examples of adverts and classifications of users, the post also identifies the essay companies who are tweeting details of all the assignments they complete – seemingly a great way of advertising the work that can be requested, but also a possible method that academics can use to check if a request for their assignment to be outsourced has been made.
Part 09 Ten Years Of Contract Cheating Keynote Presentation Slides and Video This keynote presentation traces the movement from contract cheating being kept under wraps to becoming a highly developed and sophisticated industry. This talk firmly sets the stage for the need for open discussions about contract cheating and looks at the challenges posed by new technologies. As well as the slides, a video version of the keynote is also available with my contribution lasting around one hour (for convenience, I’ve embedded this at the end of this blog post).
Part 10 10 Contract Cheating Research Observations From The Past Decade That Have Shaped What We Know About Student Cheating Behaviour What have we discovered about contract cheating that we didn’t know before (forgive me, this is one of those list type of blog posts). I’ve picked up 10 observations from across the contract cheating literature and collected knowledge base that I think are of importance and I’ve discussed each of these. The final observation holds particularly true and I heard very similar sentiments expressed in a different study just recently. That is, all assignments are cheatable when students are inclined to cheat. To me, student engagement is key, as is their ownership of their learning journey.

Looking back at the posts, I actually cheated a little as there are only really eight subjects (in two cases, I posted slides and a video as separate entitles), but there’s still a lot of information that I hope is of use there.

As several people have expressed to me recently, I’m bad at traditional academic publishing, so there are several components that could easily form the basis for a good academic paper (if only I had an unlimited conference budget). There’s also a huge amount of material I leave buried in the slides from talks, or worse still, in the verbal and video discussions.

There is a useful book bringing the developments in the contract cheating research field together that just needs to emerge.

If you have time to look at just one thing, I think that the keynote I gave on contract cheating at Curtin University balances well the need to review the past and look ahead to the potential future developments in the field.

I’ve also since worked out how to embed the video from the keynote presentation, which you can view below.

This only seems to be a screen capture with audio, but I know that cameras were filming, so that footage might be around somewhere.

The other presentations from the symposium are worth a look as well and there’s the complete recording of an internal contract cheating workshop that I delivered. There’s also audio from the closing discussion where I was part of the contract cheating panel.

Rethinking Assessment By Examination In The Age Of Contract Cheating – Plagiarism Across Europe And Beyond Conference

I’ve been asked a lot recently about cheating in examinations, particularly where technology is involved. In some of the more sophisticated cases, this can be thought of as the latest development of contract cheating, where a student can hire someone to communicate with based outside an examination room. They can then receive answers from them.

I spoke about this topic at the Plagiarism Across Europe And Beyond conference, which looked at activities throughout the world of academic integrity.

You can see the slides used in the presentation on my SlideShare account. They are also embedded below.

The presentation also contains a number of fresh examples of people trying to outsource their examinations through contract cheating providers, including one person wanting their English language examination taking for them (actually a relatively common request).

One of the more interesting examples shown involves someone asking to have the exam for a job with an essay mill taken for them. As I’ve said before, these type of positions can be of great demand.

Plagiarism Across Europe And Beyond was an excellent conference and I’ll say more about it in future posts.

International Perspectives On Contract Cheating – Staffordshire University Research Conference – Video Version

I presented on contract cheating at the Staffordshire University staff research conference using a digital presentation. For me, that meant by video recording, which is great, as it works well within Staffordshire University’s digital strategy, although I miss the interactive nature of presentation.

The video is worth sharing, as it discusses how the international community has moved towards supporting contract cheating. You can see it embedded below.

You can also see the slides and a discussion I gave about the presentation here.

Cramming highlights of the many years of research work into 10 minutes is always difficult, but I hope that this serves both as a quick introduction to the research, as well as introduces some of our recent international findings (through the SEEPPAI research in particular) and presents some of the ongoing research challenges in the area.

We’re a long way away from having solved contract cheating. There’s still a lot of work necessary to understand why students cheat and to think about how we can put interventions in place to support those students, as well as to properly reward the students who approach their studies with academic integrity.

International Perspectives On Contract Cheating – Staffordshire University Research Conference

A first for me. A conference presentation when I couldn’t be physically present and had to record the presentation in advance.

For my first research presentation at Staffordshire University I tried to capture the good work going on in the contract cheating field in a presentation designed to last ten minutes. I think I managed to do this with the recording, but there’s a huge amount of interesting materials on the slides that I just couldn’t talk about in the time available.

You can see the slides used in the presentation on my SlideShare account. They are also embedded below.

This talk is really interesting to me, as it’s one of those talks that I could make into a full 60 minute research seminar with very few updates needed to the slides at all.

When you think about it, it’s incredibly how in just over 10 years, the contract cheating field has moved from an area where it very hard to interest people, even in the UK, to one where there is excellent international research going on across the globe. Not every country is yet at the same position here, but that just opens yet more opportunities for advancement.

Contract Cheating and Commissioning Staff Development Workshop

I held a detailed staff development workshop at the University of Northampton, taking a research informed view into the problem of contract cheating and looking at what can be done about it. My colleague Robert Clarke supported the workshop although he was not able to join me in person.

You can see the slides used in the workshop on my SlideShare account. They are also embedded below.

As always, with this type of audience, the workshop generated a huge amount of discussion. I included some new examples, including my wider ongoing work on examination cheating, a focus on the increased marketing of contract cheating services and examples given directly by essay writers and essay companies that shed a wider light into how the industry operates.

Towards the end of the workshop, I asked participants to think about how they could design assessments in light of the wider issues surrounding plagiarism and contract cheating and the need to ensure academic integrity. A summary of the main points raised is included below:

  • Include a demonstration of products that students create
    – make these demonstrations compulsory for dissertations
  • Use vivas more widely and include the option of on-the-spot vivas
    – should be mentioned in assignment brief
    – make these vivas an option for all subjects
    – ensure fairness during this process
    – should be recorded
    – considered as first step of academic misconduct process
  • Teach students all about plagiarism
    – the effects of plagiarism
    – the consequences of plagiarism
    – the role of Turnitin
  • Ensure that assignments are relevant to practice
  • Change the questions in assignment briefs each year and remove from students the temptation to plagiarise
  • Get students to generate original data to include in assignments
    – provide them with more personal ownership of their work
    – consider whether anonymous marking is still appropriate as this can discourage personal ownership
  • Make sure that there is internal support for assignments
  • Incorporate sub-components into assessments with feed-forward opportunities
  • Stop using coursework and just have exams
  • Vary the assessment types across a programme
  • Link assignments together to ensure a wider understanding
    – ask students to make changes to their submitted assessments under controlled conditions

I think it’s worth stressing that these capture the main ideas from across the audience. As with any group of academics, there wasn’t always a consistent view here. I’m sure that there were people in the audience who were keen to be controversial.

These suggestions also don’t necessarily tally with my own recommendations, but there are many good starting points here for further discussions.

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